Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator

Ruled 93-c.85/3 b.c., along with other rival claimants

Son of Antiochus IX and Cleopatra IV

Married to Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Ptolemy VIII

   -Antiochus XIII Asiaticus

   -Seleucus ‘Cybiosactes’?


Siver tetradrachm of Antiochus X, unknown mint c.94 b.c.

Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator

A son of Antiochus IX and Cleopatra IV, Antiochus X took the diadem at Aradus and then defeated Seleucus VI at Antioch - in so doing avenging the death of his father (App.Syr.69).

Along with the throne, he also took his father’s widow, Selene, as his wife, thus marrying his stepmother as her fifth husband (Bellinger 1939, Tyndale Genealogy ‘Cleopatra Selene’). The bizarre character of the marriage was not lost on the ancients, as he was given the pithy nickname ‘Eusebes Philopator’ - ‘pious and father-loving’ - as a backhanded tribute to his fillial piety. Placing a beginning or end to his reign is nearly impossible given the number of simultaneous claimants to the throne - Demetrius III, Antiochus XI, and Philip I - and thus any dates attributed are as relevant as they are speculative.

The odd pair produce two sons: Antiochus XIII and a Seleucus, whom we can perhaps assume is the same as Seleucus Cybiosactes mentioned by Strabo 17.1.11 and Cassius Dio 39.57.1-2 (Hoover 2005, 95, and Ogden 1999, 157-8).

Antiochus XIII would go on to be the last of the Seleucid monarchs, reigning in Antioch from 69-64 with the support of the Romans. In 64, however, Pompey the Great turned Syria into a Roman province, and Antiochus was murdered by Sampsiceramus shortly thereafter (Ogden 1999, 158, and Cic.In.Verr.2.4.27-40, App.Syr.49-50, Plut.Pomp.39).

Precisely how Antiochus X perished is unclear, and the three divergent accounts are given at Jos.AJ.13.13.4, App.Syr.69, and Euseb.Chron.259-62. All are discussed at Bellinger 1949, 75-6.